The subject of language and reality, or more specifically can language affect reality is one of my all time favourite topics. A paper by Sloutsky et al. (2001) shows that when, as children, were learning how to categorize we relied more on language, in the form of knowledge, rather than perceptual information.
This powerpoint presentation was created by myself and colleagues for giving a talk on the paper mentioned above, How Much Does a Shared Name Make Things Similar? (Sloutsky et al., 2001). Presentation – How Much Does a Shared Name Make Things Similar? Sloutsky et al. 2001
The full paper is open access and can be downloaded at: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~cognitivedevelopmentlab/Sloutsky-Lo-Fisher-2001.pdf